Debian UEFI install

I thought that a UEFI install would be complicated but I just downloaded this ISO image and copied it to the USB device with ‘cp’.

Then I went to the BIOS, disabled ‘Secure Boot Mode’ and changed the boot order in the target computer’s BIOS to use the USB stick first.

Debian Linux sound tools

I use Debian with the notion (ion3) window manager and manage audio with a bunch of different tools.

Sometimes I forget how to configure something so this is a reference for myself:

Add user to audio group:

usermod -G audio


alsamixer (alsa-utils)
pavucontrol (pavucontrol)


List devices:

aplay -l


pactl exit (run as user, stops pulseaudio)
pulseaudio (run as user, starts pulseaudio)


To send output through HDMI, choose Audio | Audio Device and select an HDMI channel.
Alternatively use pulseaudion / pavucontrol to send VLC output through HDMI.

Flashing an MSI BIOS

If you’re flashing a BIOS for an MSI motherboard (mine is a B85M-E33) using the M-FLASH utility available from BIOS setup, make sure that the partition on your USB flash drive is set to type 6 (FAT16) using the ‘t’ command in fdisk.